If you are looking for the best solid state notes, then welcome to our website. Today in this post, I will provide you with full relevant information and best notes on chemistry chapter solid state. So stay connected with this post and read the full article until the end.
Friends, we know that matter exists in different states. It depends upon the nature of constituent particles the binding forces operating among them.
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If you want to know more about the matter, then we need to study structure composition and properties of solid substances. We have to consider from the molecular level to an appropriate macro level.
In this article, we will discuss characteristics, structure, structural defects and properties of solids.
General characteristic of Solid State
Liquid and gases are different from solids, and it is the fact that gases and liquids possess fluidity. Every matter has its characteristic. Solid possesses rigidity.
Under a given set of conditions of temperature and pressure. The three states would be most stable of a given substance depends upon the net effect of two opposing factors. Some of them are described below:
- Intermolecular forces which tend to keep the constituent particles closer.
- Thermal energy which tends to keep them apart by making them move faster.
At sufficiently low-temperature thermal energy is low and intermolecular forces bring molecules so close. In fact, the particles can still oscillate about their mean positions and the substance exists in the solid-state.
If we talk about the arrangement of constituent particles, then and they are arranged in a definite geometric pattern. Particles are in all three proportion. Students have to focus on the nature of crystalline solids because it is the best topic for increasing the score.
Close Packed Structures
This topic is about to understand the packing of the constituent particles in a crystal. The packing of the spheres or particles takes place in such a way that they occupy the maximum available space and leaving the minimum space.
Ionic crystals conduct electricity in the molten state or aqueous solution but not in the solid-state. This is because, in the solid state, the ions are not free to conduct electricity.
Important Notes on Solid State
Solids are incompressible because it forms a closed packed structure with negligible intermolecular space and possesses powerful intermolecular forces of attraction.
Compressibility is the ability of the substance to change its space by applying some external force on it.
Amorphous solids have a high tendency to flow like liquids without any difficulty. Hence we can also be called them pseudo solids or supercooled liquids.
Some glass objects from ancient civilisations are found to become milky in appearance because of the crystallisation of glass.
Any crystal lattice is made up of a huge number of unit cells.
When we learn about the conduction of electricity in semiconductors then, in that case, the gap between the valence band and conduction band is small.
Every student reading this article know that the electrical conductivity of semiconductors increases with rising in temperature because more electrons can jump from Valence band to the conduction band.
I hope this article helped you in your study and you like it also. In this article, we cover almost every essential topics of solid state. If you want to appreciate our work, then please share it with your friends so they can also learn about solid state chapter. Have a wonderful day!